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Thread: Traditional Faering plank beading.

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    Default Traditional Faering plank beading.



    Traditional Faering's display extensive plank beading, typically along the fastening line.

    Is this purely aesthetic to reduce apparent plank width like we might treat a bilge stringer? I'm not naturally a fan, I find it fussy: it would also seem to make splitting and water ingress easier. Marking the fastening line wouldn't need to be permanent. History would indicate the boats hold up though. They've been at it long enough!

    Any thoughts from those in the know: does it have a deeper function on a Faering? Show who built it?

    Cheers.

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    Adrian Osler's monograph records that the same scribed decoration persisted in Shetland built boats in living memory. It was probably purely for decoration.
    It really is quite difficult to build an ugly wooden boat.

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    It sure makes it easier to get the rivit holes in the right place.

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    Ever seen anything said in the Norwegian faering books Lagspiller? I can’t read ‘em unfortunately.
    Last edited by Edward Pearson; 05-12-2021 at 10:02 AM.

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    No, but I haven't thought to look for that, either. I can see if I find anything.
    To my eye, the boat would look rough/unfinished without the grooves.

    We made our own plane blades to cut the grooves in the strakes. They were fixed in a blockplane with a lip that followed the upper edge of the strake. Fasten the strake, sight (over the central building string) and mark correct height of the strake, cut it down to shape... and make the grooves with the special blockplane. The rivits for the next strake go in the central groove.

    You mark the inside, upper edge of the finished strake, and the outer, lower edge of the next strake. A properly set rivit sits in the central groove on both sides when the next stake is fastened in place. That puts the rivit right in the middle of the overlapp. Finally, a double-strand cotton twine soaked in linseed or pinetar is added between the strakes, passing above and below the rivits to make a continuous barrier for water ingress. The overlapping is 2 cm wide, so there isn't much room for a wrongly placed rivit. The groove helps greatly in getting that right on both sides.
    Last edited by lagspiller; 05-12-2021 at 02:26 PM. Reason: Added some info on fitting the strakes together.

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    Ok... Here's what I found.

    The block plane is in the photo above the text.

    In the text...
    The ornamental groove (prydrender) has been used a long time in båtbuilding. There are archeological finds dating to 700 a.d. and from Gokstad.
    And then the precise sentence you are looking for...
    Staffering [cutting ornamental grooves] helps give good flexibility in the boat and is an arena in the building process where the boat builder can add his artistic mark to the boat.
    The footnote (142) quotes several sources. One suggests the marking derives from an earlier time when the boats were sewn together [roots and animal products have been used]. Bringing the stitching into the strake protected it from chafing and wear. A second thinks the marking was a way for the builder to identify the boat as one of his.

    So there you have it. Nobody knows.

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    Thanks for looking and translating for me.





    About how deep was your groove for the rivet compared to the plank thickness?

    Cheers
    Last edited by Edward Pearson; 05-12-2021 at 03:56 PM.

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.





    Think I've got this now...one line is 'structural' and goes half way across the lap and marks the rivet entry and exit mid way on the lap. Markings either side is up to the boatbuilder - it seems to vary (probably with boat size)...would that be right? Small boats just one groove - bigger ones maybe 3?

    Is a Stanley 66 beading plane man enough to get it done?

    Last edited by Edward Pearson; 05-12-2021 at 04:49 PM.

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    As most probably make their own blade, grinding a straight plane blade, they will all differ slightly. Most will have 3 grooves, but not all. I've seen single grooves and double with the 'central' being the widest and the second just a narrow cut. But the important groove is the one marking the middle of the overlap. That is usually about 6 mm.
    So, of the lot you show, I would use the second from the right, lower row. Most would also have a narrow tip on each side to cut the secondary grooves.
    The grooves are not deep. About 2 mm. Perhaps 3, but no more. The upper strake on an Oselvar is only 12mm, and that is bevelled in the overlap face. You don't want to make a deep groove.

    The flex could also refer to the boat itself, not the lap. They are not stiff. A rigid boat breaks in the waves. A flexible boat twists and spreads the load/shock over a large area. The placement of the frames and the way they are fastened to the strakes is also a design feature in using flex/torsion to spread the pressure/loads. I don't think it is necessary to add flex to get a tight boat. The overlaps are shaped to sit perfectly flush before the pressure from the rivits are added. The twine and the swelling of the boards in the water do that job.

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    Think I've got this now...one line is 'structural' and goes half way across the lap and marks the rivet entry and exit mid way on the lap. Markings either side is up to the boatbuilder - it seems to vary (probably with boat size)...would that be right? Small boats just one groove - bigger ones maybe 3?

    Is a Stanley 66 beading plane man enough to get it done?
    Same plane, same pattern on both sides. It doesn't take much effort because you are not going deep. Some builders just use a scraper they have filed the pattern they want, hooking it over the board and pulling it toward them to scrape the groove in the board. You need some kind of steering that follows the edge of the board, and at least that central groove half the width of the overlap. The extra are simply ornamental.
    I'll see if I can find a shot from our build that shows something.

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.


    This is what I can find quickly of one of my builds.
    If you blow the photo up, you can see the 'beading' on the outside of the overlap on the nearest strake, and the corresponding on the strake on the inside, opposite side of the boat. After the strake is attached and cut down to height, the 'beading' is added on the outside.
    When the next strake board is completely adjusted to fit at the overlap, the board is marked with a pencil on the inside, following the top of the finished strake below. Then you add 2 cm to that to find the bottom edge of the new strake, saw along that line and, using the SAME 'beading' tool, cut the groove on the outside, bottom edge. When the strake board is mounted, the two 'beadings' match - inside and outside - and mark where the rivits go.

    Notice also that the upper edge of the new strake is still a raw edge. That gets cut down to size AFTER the strake is attached.

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    Quote Originally Posted by Hugh Conway View Post
    what book is this? Looks interesting.
    OSELVAR
    Den levande båten

    By Kjell Magnus Økland

    About 600 pages covering pretty much everything about this particular boat type. Some things will be typical of Nordic building. Some things are very specifically Oselvar.

    Oh! Look what I found on the internet!

    https://issuu.com/skaldforlag/docs/9788279592532_issuu

    You can thumb through some of the book yourself.
    Last edited by lagspiller; 05-12-2021 at 04:34 PM. Reason: Added a link

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    Do the Gokstad boats have a groove? If so I wonder how it was put in. The simple one on my Åfjords færing allow the rivets to be nicely flush with the plank surfact and I expect it made locating the rivets much easier that using a gauge.
    Ben Fuller
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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    Quote Originally Posted by lagspiller View Post

    This is what I can find quickly of one of my builds.
    If you blow the photo up, you can see the 'beading' on the outside of the overlap on the nearest strake, and the corresponding on the strake on the inside, opposite side of the boat. After the strake is attached and cut down to height, the 'beading' is added on the outside.
    When the next strake board is completely adjusted to fit at the overlap, the board is marked with a pencil on the inside, following the top of the finished strake below. Then you add 2 cm to that to find the bottom edge of the new strake, saw along that line and, using the SAME 'beading' tool, cut the groove on the outside, bottom edge. When the strake board is mounted, the two 'beadings' match - inside and outside - and mark where the rivits go.

    Notice also that the upper edge of the new strake is still a raw edge. That gets cut down to size AFTER the strake is attached.
    There is a view amongst British boat builders that you "stitch" the seam nails either side of the line to avoid splitting the land by hitting the same line of grain.
    The Shetland builders did use a moulding plane to cur a shallow trough o the inside of the next strake to hold the dion or wool caulking in place.
    It really is quite difficult to build an ugly wooden boat.

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    Quote Originally Posted by Ben Fuller View Post
    Do the Gokstad boats have a groove? If so I wonder how it was put in. The simple one on my Åfjords færing allow the rivets to be nicely flush with the plank surfact and I expect it made locating the rivets much easier that using a gauge.
    The text in the Oselvar-book mentioned Gokstad. And I happen to have this photo from 2016 still on my mobile...

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.


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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    Thanks for all that Lagspiller. I'll have to make another effort to get that book...



    Traditionally were the frames and internal furniture always finished with a 45 degree stop chamfer/ bevel rather than being rounded over?
    Last edited by Edward Pearson; 05-13-2021 at 03:41 AM.

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    I don't know of any rule about that. Most I've seen seem to be flat with rounded edges. Some rounded. I haven't seen any with 45 degree bevels, but that wouldn't raise any eyebrows. There are probably regional differences.

    The 'cross-braces' (beter) are often marked with the same beading tool as the boards. Gives it a finished look with the same detail used different places.

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    Quote Originally Posted by lagspiller View Post
    Great photo. This kind of bead could be put in with pretty simple tools; don't think a plane was part of the Viking era kit. This bead looks pretty functional. I don't know if there was predrilling before the nail was driven but if it was, drilling with a bow drill would be much easier working down before the plank was placed.I wonder if the little boats found at the same time had a edge groove. I'll see if there is anything about this in what I have of Roskilde publications. Maybe something in the Gisingle (spelling) project information.
    Ben Fuller
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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    Lap detail of the Gokstad ship (890 AD). if you click to go under the bilges...the overall groove profile appears to be matched to the rivet heads as Lagspiller says. If the groove is central in the lap, the rivet heads also look sized to the width of the lap. Beading detail above and below. Notably mostly hardwood Oak planked.

    https://my.matterport.com/show/?m=LCWEGGrUnpi

    Screen Shot 2021-05-14 at 14.28.40.jpg
    Last edited by Edward Pearson; 05-14-2021 at 09:01 AM.

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    This is what I have on my centuries later færing. Functionally it keeps the rivet head from sticking out, a real advantage in a boat that get beached and is handled on rollers. The post in #8 answers my question about tools, not really a plane but a scraper.
    Ben Fuller
    Ran Tan, Liten Kuhling, Tipsy, Tippy, Josef W., Merry Mouth, Imp, Macavity, Look Far, Flash and a quiver of other 'yaks.
    "Bound fast is boatless man."

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    Quote Originally Posted by Ben Fuller View Post
    This is what I have on my centuries later færing. Functionally it keeps the rivet head from sticking out, a real advantage in a boat that get beached and is handled on rollers. The post in #8 answers my question about tools, not really a plane but a scraper.
    Hi Ben!

    I think there are 2 different bead profiles on your Åfjords faering. I still have the planes that I used when I built that boat. There is a single bead used on the plank edges. The hood ends of the planks have a cove with a bead on each side of the cove.

    When I first arrived at the school in Norway, I built a set of planes. They are copies of planes that my teacher, Einar Borgfjord, owned. I have those tools in storage but I can dig them up later and shoot some pictures. Both tools are cutting tools (planes) rather than scraping tools.

    Regarding the original question of whether the beading is only decorative, I believe that I posed the same question to my teacher when I was in Norway. That was in 1993 so my memory may be faulty but my recollection matches what has already been said. The bead on the plank edges is decorative but does serve as an indicator of where the fasteners are placed. The profile on the hood ends of the planks has the same function but as Ben points out, the cove also recesses the rivet heads and may provide some protection from abrasion.

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.



    Interesting this Faering went 800 miles up the PNW...and found he had barnacles growing in the grooves...dang.



    https://smallboatsmonthly.com/articl...ailing/page/3/
    Last edited by Edward Pearson; 05-14-2021 at 02:50 PM.

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    Default planes

    Here are photos of some planes that are used for the beading of planks on Åfjord boats. I went to school in Norway in 1988-1989 (not 1993 as I said earlier) to study boat building with Einar Borgfjord. These planes are replicas of planes that Einar owned.

    image1.jpg

    image2.jpg

    The spoon shaped plane on the left is used on the end of the planks where they land on the stem. In use, this plane is cutting across the grain of the plank. It is pulled from the bottom edge of the plank to the top edge. The fence is removable and can be moved from one side to the other so it can be used on planks form both sides of the boat. The fence is narrow to follow the curvature of the end of he plank.

    This plane and the plane shown in the photo from lagspiller in post #6 appear to cut the same profile. They also share the removable fence. It looks like the plane is post #6 is intended for use along the edge of planks with a longer fence and body.

    The plane on the right is intended for use on the edge of planks. It is basically the same as a molding plane.

    There are many regions in Norway and each has it's own type of boats. There are regional differences in design, construction, and ornamentation. These tools were used on Åfjord boats but may not match what is used in other regions. The profiles used may also be specific to particular builders rather than regional differences.
    Last edited by Jon Etheredge; 05-14-2021 at 04:47 PM.

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    Default Re: planes

    Some additional photos...

    image3.jpg

    image4.jpg

    image5.jpg

    The irons for these planes are made from repurposed steel. The iron for the left hand plane started life as a file. I ground the teeth off of one side but didn't bother to grind them off of the back.

    The other iron was a chisel that I scored on the grinding wheel and then snapped off. I ground off one edge of the chisel to form the tang. It isn't very clear in these photos but there is a nib on this iron that cuts a bead on the side away from the fence.

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    Default Re: planes

    Quote Originally Posted by Jon Etheredge View Post
    Here are photos of some planes that are used for the beading of planks on Åfjord boats. I went to school in Norway in 1988-1989 (not 1993 as I said earlier) to study boat building with Einar Borgfjord. These planes are replicas of planes that Einar owned.

    image1.jpg

    image2.jpg

    The spoon shaped plane on the left is used on the end of the planks where they land on the stem. In use, this plane is cutting across the grain of the plank. It is pulled from the bottom edge of the plank to the top edge. The fence is removable and can be moved from one side to the other so it can be used on planks form both sides of the boat. The fence is narrow to follow the curvature of the end of he plank.

    This plane and the plane shown in the photo from lagspiller in post #6 appear to cut the same profile. They also share the removable fence. It looks like the plane is post #6 is intended for use along the edge of planks with a longer fence and body.

    The plane on the right is intended for use on the edge of planks. It is basically the same as a molding plane.

    There are many regions in Norway and each has it's own type of boats. There are regional differences in design, construction, and ornamentation. These tools were used on Åfjord boats but may not match what is used in other regions. The profiles used may also be specific to particular builders rather than regional differences.
    The plane on the right is exactly like the ones we used in the Sunnhordland region. The fence is changed between sides in relation to the direction the plane is being used.

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    No, I meant 'right'. But looking again I see now that model doesn't have a fence. (tricked by the small mobile phone screen)
    Ours had a thin, flat, much wider fence that could be changed from side to side, sliding into notches in a similar way to the plane on the left. The entire plane fits nicely into the palm of a hand. Very fast and easy to use.
    We made blades same way Jon described.

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.



    Lagspiller thanks for that. The plane iron really shows the molding shape.

    The book on Oselvar...where did you buy your copy from? I've filled in the form for the authors homepage but got no response.

    https://kjellmag.no/default-css.asp?...=1482&id=11224

    Is there a bigger Norwegian bookshop that ships international that stocks it? Shame he can't get some copies to Amazon! Nothing on Abe books either. Is the writer the only source?

    Ed

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    Default Re: Traditional Faering plank beading.

    I happen to know Kjell Magnus is sailing in the islands around our town today. 17th May is National Day in Norway. (Hurra!)

    If he doesn't get back to you after the holiday, which I'm sure he will, I can help you get in touch. I believe the books are sold out in the shops, but he has some copies left.
    You can also reach him at kystkultur.no

    But be warned, the book weighs a ton. Won't be cheap to ship.

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