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Thread: Back on the chain gang...

  1. #1
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    Default Back on the chain gang...

    This thread could so easily have been titled 'Men and Machines', 'The Defect Hunters' or even 'Here we go Again', but you'll get the drift I'm sure.

    I have been working as an ultrasonics tech for a Din 1000 (that's about 3 feet diameter for the imperialistically hobbled) gas line running from a newly planned floating gas terminal on the North German coast, Wilhelmshaven, running to the national gas network, a distance of around 30Km. While this is a sensitive, timely, and geo-politically important civil engineering project, it is also routine work.

    I am carrying out the primary welding quality control for half of the project, a colleague the other half. It's a short run in context of other projects I have worked on and indeed pipeline construction lengths in general which can run into the 1000's of Km, but I am glad to be involved in this one. I am the fulcrum between top brass owners / national standards authorities, and welders straight out of Puglia and crane drivers from Szolnok. I performing aerospace level diggity in 7 different languages, waist deep in umska whilst taking calls from the Dalai Lama... (well TuV anyway). It's insane.

    Let me start by saying that pipeliners work together through the heat, dust, rain, ice, and wind together outside, whilst performing extraordinary technical feats essentially outside. It's a question of keeping it going no matter what, which attracts a breed of hardy 'fix it or go home' types. We help each other, motivate each other, sometimes curse each other but we become brothers at the end of the day, each project a small division of global family, top to bottom.

    I thought it might be of interest for some to see some snaps and follow a work diary of this.

    Pipe yard.

    DSC_1611.jpg

    Each section is 12 Meters long, 20mm thick wall, and weighs around 6 metric tonnes. These are pre-bevelled at 30 degrees, 2mm root land.

    DSC_1593.jpg

    DSC_1585.jpg

    ..being loaded into..

    DSC_1599.jpg

    ..the bending machine.

    DSC_1595.jpg

    This bends them to 0.5 degrees accuracy taking into account spring back and material properties (not all pipes are equal) and often to compound angles. Extraordinary, but no more so than the surveying that preceded the calculations for the bend angles, often covering hundreds of kilometers of land that isn't straight or flat, damn it.

  2. #2
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Kristian. TIG welder extraordinaire.
    DSC_1604.jpg

    Gabor.
    DSC_1607.jpg


    DSC_1601.jpg

    Some guy.
    DSC_1592.jpg

    Anyway, if any of you have even a passing interest in machines, welding, mud, or even ultrasonics I will continue, whilst trying not to break my NDA of course.

    https://oge.net/en/for-everyone/cons...-pipeline-link

  3. #3
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    That's really good going Rob.. I lose the will to live after an hour of digging holes, although trenches are a little more satisfying because at least they go somewhere.

    Here's a hole for you.. every now and then the pipe needs to go under a road or river so they weld up consecutive sections, inspect them, coat them and then push them through. They can direct the lengths of pipe with each push using directional drilling techniques. This below is a photo of the 'normal' pipeline being connected to the section that has been pushed underneath in this case a small river, called a tie-in weld.

    DSC_1707.jpg

    DSC_1697.jpg

    DSC_1703.jpg

    Scanner tech, scanner and band back up safe and sound. Next.

    DSC_1711.jpg

  4. #4
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Here's a shot of an HDD string that I worked on 2 years ago.

    At almost 2 km it was pushed right under the Rhein at Wesel, NRW.

    IMG_20190808_173638_1CS (1).jpg

  5. #5
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    I think we passed your pipeline returning from Schillig going south past Hooksiel early September. At least there was pipeline work beside the street. It was the weekend, so, there was not a lot of activity.

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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    I'd second that. Keep it coming, Martin. This is fascinating stuff.

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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    In 1944, while the US was fighting in WWII, Tennessee Gas & Transmission Company built a pipeline from near Corpus Christie, Texas to near the point where the states of Ohio, West Virginia and Kentucky meet. 1265 miles in 10 months. The job employed 9,000 to 11,000 workers. My father was one on those that worked on the section over the Mississippi River. This would have been a summer job for him between 11th and 12th grades. Less than 6 months later, he was in the army training to invade Japan. This was one of the first welded pipe pipelines.

    The pipeline intersected sixty-seven major streams and rivers, which the contractors
    had to traverse with special crossings. In most instances, Tennessee Gas blasted trenches
    out of the streambeds, and then the carefully wrapped pipeline was weighted, sunk, and
    buried. In one or two cases barge-mounted dredges had to clear the river bottom before
    work could proceed. The pipe used in the submerged crossings was generally thicker than
    the main line pipe, and a number of crossings used two or even three smaller pipelines.
    Where river traffic or swift currents made submerged pipeline inappropriate, aerial
    crossings were constructed. The contractors for the aerial crossings—Austin Bridge
    Company and Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel Company—pre-fabricated the bridging
    sections and suspended them over the rivers by cables. The Mississippi River crossing
    at Greenville, Mississippi, used the highway bridge—two 18-inch pipeline sections carried the gas
    on either side of the highway. In addition to river crossings, the pipeline traversed
    274 roads and 62 railroads and crossed numerous easements, electrical rights-of-way, and
    other obstacles. To cross roads and railroads, Tennessee Gas’s contractors tunneled
    underneath and then forced a capped section of pipe through the tunnel. This
    accomplished, the pipe would be uncapped, cleaned, welded, and tested, all without
    disturbing the road or railroad above.
    Construction continued throughout the summer and fall of 1944. With improving
    weather and a looming deadline, the contractors made excellent time, eventually reaching
    a pace of more than seven miles a day. After delays caused by bad weather, extremely
    rough terrain, and labor problems, Bechtel-Dempsey-Price laid the final sections of the
    pipeline in late October. The final tie-in occurred on October 31, 1944, with gas reaching
    Tennessee Gas’s customers less than 24 hours later. Completing the Tennessee Gas
    pipeline had taken fewer than eleven months after the groundbreaking, with 94 percent of
    the pipeline built between May 1 and October 31, 1944. The total cost of the line was
    approximately $54 million, with more than $44 million provided by an RFC loan. The new
    pipeline would prove to be of immense value to the war effort, and it played a crucial role
    in keeping Appalachian defense plants in operation.
    https://thebhc.org/sites/default/files/raley.pdf

    IMG_0008 800x600.jpg

    IMG_0005 800.jpg
    Last edited by Jimmy W; 09-14-2022 at 05:01 PM.

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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Looks like hard work. Keep it coming. Is there a wheeled robot for inspection?

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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Lupu, since you were so kind to offer your services as photo editor, allow me to return the favor and offer my services as both copywriter and photo editor on this thread that seems to be sinking faster than some of the ditches you posted.

    It's rare that I ever start a thread that doesn't have multiple pages of engagement so maybe I can be of help.

    This photo in particular is puzzling since the the composition, focus of the subject are damn near perfect.



    Maybe, just maybe me contributing to this thread will excite the community and you will get the much needed recognition you deserve.





    Bump
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  10. #10
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Oh, I see this thread is trending in Socal!

    Sign me up~
    Skip

    ---This post is delivered with righteous passion and with a solemn southern directness --
    ...........fighting against the deliberate polarization of politics...

  11. #11
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Please keep the pics & text coming Martin!
    "If it ain't broke, you're not trying." - Red Green

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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Quote Originally Posted by Henning 4148 View Post
    I think we passed your pipeline returning from Schillig going south past Hooksiel early September. At least there was pipeline work beside the street. It was the weekend, so, there was not a lot of activity.
    Indeed you did.. that is exactly my area. Normally pipeline schedule is 6 days one week, 4 days the next in rotation. This is to allow workers to travel back home and still spend quality time with family.. and it falls under German workers union laws because it levels out to 5 / 5. This project is different, we are doing 6 / 6 for 3 months.. incredible that the German labour laws have been overruled but these are special times, Europe's energy needs are under threat and winter is coming.

    Jimmy, that's incredible! 7 miles a day? And back then? Unbelievable. Thanks for the historic photos, really interesting. I can't make out what those men are doing..
    maybe bevel cutting?

    The pipes are loaded onto highly modified Mercedes Actros trucks out to the spread. Original V6 engines but 8 wheel drive, the cabs are suspended from a frame to get the necessary bridge clearance.

    DSC_1563.jpg

    DSC_1571.jpg

    From there they are taken out on the spread and laid out in sequence. Every one is bar coded so they can be identified.

    DSC_1568.jpg

    Jurg, one of the pipe truck drivers.

    Jurg.jpg

  13. #13
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    About twenty years ago a Texas crew laid a gas line 200ft from my house. Once it was all laid and carrying gas, a 152 Cessna flew over the line regularly spotting for leaks.

  14. #14
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Good subject, great pictures, interesting commentary.
    You dont need any help with the editing, you are doing just fine.
    I'd be most interested in what you do and how you do it.
    I registered here today just so I could see your pictures.
    Keep it up.

  15. #15
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    This is a brilliant thread. I knew nothing about pipe laying, now I've learnt a tiny bit.

    Please keep it coming.

    Thanks, Ed

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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Quote Originally Posted by AndanteEd View Post
    I knew nothing about pipe laying
    pity that
    Simpler is better, except when complicated looks really cool.

  17. #17
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Quote Originally Posted by Paul Pless View Post
    pity that


    I'm doing my best
    Bump
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  18. #18
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Hand bevelling, in this case after a cut out. The welders have 2 chances of getting it right, the initial weld, and then a repair to grind out the defect and manually weld over. If that is also a repair having scanned it again, the entire weld must be cut out, bevelled and welded again. It's a shame this project uses pre bevelled pipes because a field bevelling machine is a sight to behold.

    DSC_1544.jpg

    The welding is the automatic Proteus system with automatic TIG roots on this project. I'll get into the welders tents soon and take some snaps. In the mean time here's some gratuitous machine shots.

    DSC_1583.jpg

    Volvo A30G

    DSC_1734.jpg

    DSC_1732.jpg

    Liebherr RL60 Side boom. 60 Tonnes.

    DSC_1543.jpg

  19. #19
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Cool stuff! The equipment is impressive. The machines bending the tubes ...

    German labour law as far as I remember: Max. 10 hours per working day (including Saturday as a working day but not Sunday) and a maximum average of 48 hours per week over 6 months. Or something like that. How far this can be stretched further with approved exceptions - no idea. Sunday work would need in advance approval by relevant authority. The pay for working times like the above would have to be good - standard contracts for work in Germany are 35 ... 40 hrs / week.

  20. #20
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Is the pipeline staying above ground for some stretches? I thought this might have been the case when we passed by.

  21. #21
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    how does one push pipe like that?

  22. #22
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Ultrasonics 101.

    Speed, time, distance are intimately related. We express speed in terms of distance over time.

    Imagine you are standing in a room of unknown geometry with a blindfold on. In your hand you have a rubber ball, and on your wrist a watch so accurate that it can measure nano-seconds. You throw the ball at a preset speed (important), it bounces off a wall an unknown distance away and comes back to your hand, when the stopwatch on your wrist stops. You take off the blindfold and look at the time it took to reach the wall and come back to your catching hand. From this you can calculate with accuracy how far away the wall was, dividing the total number by 2... pitch / catch.

    Now in a second example you have 64 rubber balls in your hand, and the same scenario. You throw all of them at the same time at the same preset speed. Some of them come back sooner than others, but all the elapsed times are recorded. From this you can ascertain that the room has facets and different reflective walls at different distances away. You can image the room thus.

    The first example is a basic ultrasonic test of material wall thickness using a single beam. As long as you know the ultrasonic velocity of the material (and what kind of beam you are using) you can measure it's wall thickness.

    The second scenario is an example of multiple beams being fired at (or near) the same time. This technique is called phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) and is usually done with between 16 to 128 piezo-electric crystals being excited from a single probe. Both are amplitude based inspection techniques.

    Here is an example of a calibration block being made for this project, downtown Rotterdam.

    IMG_20220801_162059_414.jpg

    It's a complex block because what we do is complex, but the principle is simple. A flat bottomed hole of exact dimensions is drilled into it to a known depth, say 2mm diameter. Our PAUT shot is directed towards it until it is bang on the end of the hole, and the amplitude is set to a pre-determined %, usually 80%. So we know that a 2mm reflector will give us an 80% amplitude signal. We therefore know that in the weld a 160% response will give us a 4mm reflector, and a 40% response will give us a 1mm reflector.

    IMG_20220801_162118_289.jpg

    This guy is gooping in over the holes with silicon so it does not corrode from water damage. We make holes at different depths, simulating the weld bevel at each height, and inside the weld body at each height, and program the 64 element PAUT shots to focus and hit them all and make all the responses 80%. Of course, we shoot from both sides of the simulated weld, upstream and downstream.

    IMG_20220803_121928_058.jpg

    This cal block is then gooped into a dummy which is mounted at the back of the truck, and a section of band is bolted above it at an exact height. The scanner can then be mounted on the band and is run over it using a motor before and after each weld is scanned to prove our settings are within acceptable limits and what we say about the weld can be believed.

    IMG_20220803_150646_906.jpg

    PAUT is extremely useful and interesting, not least because it is fast but because beams can in effect be steered, angled and focussed inside the steel. When you have multiple shots they can be made to interact in various ways. Imagine you have a row of pistols mounted on poles in a straight line. You fire one, then a nano second later fire the one adjacent to it. The shock wave from the second bullet leaving will affect the trajectory of the first bullet. Now imagine you fire each one in sequence all in a line, 1 to 64.. all a few nano-seconds after the last one. The result will be that they all veer off from their initial trajectory. If you fired the outside 2 first, then fired the next ones in, then the next ones in until the middle ones are fired last, they would start to fan out in an arc, and if you fired the centre ones first going towards the outside they would start to focus towards the centre.

  23. #23
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Fascinating!!
    I was looking at a much smaller pipe that had been pushed under a local junction. Was wondering how they guide the 'drill' to go under the road and up again. Had a couple of ideas, but would like the real deal..
    A2

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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Quote Originally Posted by Henning 4148 View Post
    Is the pipeline staying above ground for some stretches? I thought this might have been the case when we passed by.
    No, it will be buried and the ground reinstated 100%. Europe and particularly Germany has very robust environmental laws regarding such issues. I do not know how many thousands of tonnes of sand, gravel and steel / wood plates are used to make the pipeline 'right of way' (temporary tracks for machines to drive next to the pipeline as it is constructed) but it is mind boggling, and all so that the land is disturbed as little as possible. On the Zeelink project which was the land side of Nordstream 2, the entire workforce for one stretch of it was halted for over a week because a rare Bee-eater bird had decided to nest on the RoW.

    I like that.

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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    I'll get some shots of the horizontal drilling equipment used to push the pipe, but it is basically and huge frame placed in the hole with big hydraulic rams.

    I am no expert on directional drilling but from what I understand an angled blade is welded onto the front of the pipe being pushed. This will veer the pipe to one side, but is steered by rotating the pipe as it is being pushed. Directional drill has had quite a renaissance of late. It has breathed new life into old low pressure North Sea rigs by re-drilling their wells. Quite astounding what they can do with it.

  26. #26
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Quote Originally Posted by RCRVRP View Post
    Good subject, great pictures, interesting commentary.
    You dont need any help with the editing, you are doing just fine.
    I'd be most interested in what you do and how you do it.
    I registered here today just so I could see your pictures.
    Keep it up.

    Welcome to the forum and thank you!

    Martin.

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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...


  28. #28
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Giuseppe di Bari, lovely guy. He makka da 'ot pass welding.

    DSC_1723.jpg

    Coffee with the Macaronis.

    Ignacio Del Castillo o Camacho. What a name.. a wonderful Spanish gentleman who has worked all over the world.

    Everyone calls him Nacho however. He makes the strongest espresso on the planet.

    DSC_1674.jpg

    Juan.

    DSC_1679.jpg

    Raphael, repair welder.

    DSC_1682.jpg

    These guys are artisanal welders. Always a pleasure to scan their work.

    Macaroni welders.jpg

  29. #29
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    TOFD is awesome. TOFD rocks my world.

    Time of Flight Diffraction, as it's name suggests uses diffraction signals to size defects.

    Imagine you are standing on a cliff looking over the sea, with gentle orderly sets of waves coming in from a direction of your choosing. In the sea is a wall, not connected to the land, just a straight-ish wall freestanding out there in the water. The waves go towards it, they will rise up and then fall away as waves do.. this is reflection. At the ends of the wall you will notice smaller, faster waves emanating from the ends of the wall, radiating out from that point in all directions which have nothing to do with the reflecting waves. This is diffraction.

    Important to know that we are concerned with different types of waves that travel at different speeds. If you vibrate a crystal perpendicular (0 deg, or 'normal) to the steels flat surface it will propagate compression waves. The ultrasonic velocity of most steels is around 5600 - 6000 M/s and compression waves will travel at that speed. If you tilt the probe whilst putting rexolite wedges under it (so that the sound can traverse the air gap underneath it), between 0 to around 36 degrees it will keep propagating compression waves at around 6000 M/s at those angles. Above around 36 degrees and the soundwaves change from compression waves to shear waves, which travel at around half the speed, or aprox 3400 - 3800 M/s. This refraction, just as light bends hitting water at an angle, the ultrasonic waves refract into the steel and change mode at the first refractive angle.

    Unlike single beam ultrasonics and PAUT, TOFD is not amplitude based, it does not need a flat bottomed hole reflector to be set at reference amplitude, nor does it size defects using amplitude. It sizes using time, specifically the time that diffracted tip waves (like the wall in the sea) emanating from the top and bottom of the defect take to come back to the RX probe. Often you only see the top and bottom tips of defect, not seeing the 'body' of the defect at all.

    It is a really versatile and accurate sizing technique. Typically it can size to 0.3mm precision, depending on the probe frequency, material properties and depth of interest.

    This is a typical set up, 2 probes TX and RX. Typical refracted angles are between 60 to 70 degrees, so the slower velocity shear waves. The small high frequency crystal propagates a very wide beam, so wide in fact that the upper edge travels right along the surface of the steel. This part of the beam has the shortest distance to go, and so is received first by the RX probe, and is called the lateral wave. The lower part of the beam fills the weld body and the lowest part reflects off the back wall. As you go deeper the beams have longer to go and so take longer for the RX probe to receive them.

    download.png

    If the shear waves diffract, they change mode to compression waves, and so go faster than the rest of the shear waves. As we only see these diffracted compression waves in the weld body, we can size the top and bottom of a defect, and so the overall size.

    Here is a TOFD scan. The weld is turned vertical in this example. The lateral wave (top of the weld) is to the left, the back wall to the right of the image. The part in between is the weld body. As you can see we have some issues here

    Root fusion defects, copper touch (an interesting one, more on that later) and cold lap issues to the bottom. This one was so bad it had to be cut out and redone. It was not from this current project.

    Screenshot (127).jpg

    Here is another, showing the corresponding A scan beneath it. This one had incomplete fusion deep in the weld body, in this case an acceptable size, hence the green.

    IMG_20220908_062823_804.jpg


    Here is another TOFD scan showing a large cluster porosity towards the bottom.

    Screenshot (128).jpg

  30. #30
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Me and Nacho make espresso with the same tool.

    This thread is flipping awesome.

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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    This one's for you Rob. Weep my trenching brother, weep.

    DSC_1770.jpg

    Made with this. Although this is a brand new one.

    IMG_20220915_113408_796.jpg
    Last edited by lupussonic; 09-16-2022 at 02:47 PM.

  32. #32
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Oh, sure, thatís simple with all that elbow room! Hahaha. Of course, backfilling such is an absolute joy compared to unfilling one.

  33. #33
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Today also featured...

    IMG_20220916_141231_531.jpg

    A rare Unimog tanker.

  34. #34
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    DE67F4C9-7939-4753-B5BE-4CC47A3E5140.jpg
    Amateur hour. The conduit was a depressing reminder of how short I still was.

  35. #35
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    Default Re: Back on the chain gang...

    Great thread, always interesting seeing big engineering.
    With the bent sections of pipe, how do they get accurately indexed/clocked (I'm sure there's a better word) relative to the previous section? I assume the bending machine makes some sort of accurate "this side up" mark?

    Pete
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