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Thread: Ancient Mediterranean Work Boats

  1. #1
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    Default Ancient Mediterranean Work Boats

    In 1987 an important ancient ship wreck has been found in Northern Cyprus. I re called them Ancient Mediterranean Work Boats.

    uluburun-4 (1).jpgKyreniaSt.jpg

    after the Cyprus wreck ,named Kyrenia , another famous wreck , Uluburun has been found in Turkey Kaş. Cargo of Uluburun gived important information about ancient times trade seaways. Replicas has been constructed for both of them and important voyages has been done and lot of important information has been described about the sailing at that age.

    İn This thread, I try to investigate these ancient wooden boats named as Ancient Mediterranean Work Boats as a sailor. I try to determine the capabilities of these boats and according to weather conditions in Mediterranean and find out possible ancient seaways. After that I start to sail ancient ports using these seaways in this summer with my Blue Moon replica.

    Anyone who have any information about this subject , please share in this threat. It is highly appreciated.

  2. #2
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    Default Re: Ancient Mediterranean Work Boats

    From Wiki...Uluburun boat.

    The vessel[edit]


    Lifesize replica at the Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology.

    The distribution of the wreckage and the scattered cargo indicates that the ship was between 15 and 16 meters long. It was constructed by the shell-first method, with mortise-and-tenon joints similar to those of the Graeco-Roman ships of later centuries.[15]
    Even though there has been a detailed examination of Uluburun’s hull, there is no evidence of framing. The keelappears to be rudimentary, perhaps more of a keel-plank than a keel in the traditional sense. The ship was built with planks and keel of Lebanese cedar and oak tenons.[16] Lebanese cedar is indigenous to the mountains of Lebanon, southern Turkey, and central Cyprus.[17] The ship carried 24 stone anchors. The stone is of a type almost completely unknown in the Aegean, but is often built into the temples of Syria-Palestine and on Cyprus. Brushwood and sticks served as dunnage to help protect the ship’s planks from the metal ingots and other heavy cargo.[11]


    Cargo[edit]


    This is a list of the cargo as described by Pulak (1998).The Uluburun ship’s cargo consisted mostly of raw materials that were trade items, which before the ship’s discovery were known primarily from ancient texts or Egyptian tomb paintings. The cargo matches many of the royal gifts listed in the Amarna lettersfound at El-Amarna, Egypt.

    • Copper and tin ingots
      • Raw copper cargo totaling ten tons, consisting of a total of 354 ingots of the oxhide (rectangular with handholds extending from each corner) type.
      • Out of the total amount of ingots at least 31 unique two-handled ingots were identified that were most likely shaped this way to assist the process of loading ingots onto specially designed saddles or harnesses for ease of transport over long distances by pack animals.
      • 121 copper bun and oval ingots.
      • The oxhide ingots were originally stowed in 4 distinct rows across the ship’s hold, which either slipped down the slope after the ship sank or shifted as the hull settled under the weight of the cargo.
      • Approximately one ton of tin (when alloyed with the copper would make about 11 tons of bronze).
      • Tin ingots were oxhide and bun shaped.

    • Canaanite jars and Pistacia resin
      • At least 149 Canaanite jars (widely found in Greece, Cyprus, Syria-Palestine, and Egypt).
      • Jars are categorized as the northern type and were most likely made somewhere in the northern part of modern-day Israel.
      • One jar filled with glass beads, many filled with olives, but the majority contained a substance known as Pistacia (terebinth) resin, an ancient type of turpentine.
      • Recent clay fabric analyses of Canaanite jar sherds from the 18th-Dynasty site of Tell el-Amarna have produced a specific clay fabric designation, and it is seemingly the same as that from the Uluburun shipwreck, of a type that is exclusively associated in Amarna with transporting Pistacia resin.

    • Glass ingots
      • Approximately 175 glass ingots of cobalt blue turquoise and lavender were found (earliest intact glass ingots known).
      • Chemical composition of cobalt blue glass ingots matches those of contemporary Egyptian core-formed vessels and Mycenaean pendant beads, which suggests a common source.


    Egyptian jewelry
    1 gold disk-shaped pendant 2. gold falcon pendant 3. gold goddess pendant 4. faience beads 5. rock crystal beads 6. agate beads 7. faience beads 8. ostrich eggshell beads 9. silver bracelets 10. gold scrap 11. gold chalice 12. accreted mass of tiny faience beads 13. silver scrap


    • Miscellaneous cargo
      • Logs of blackwood from Africa (referred to as ebony by the Egyptians)
      • Ivory in the form of whole and partial hippopotamus and elephant tusks
      • More than a dozen hippopotamus teeth
      • Tortoise carapaces (upper shells)
      • Murex opercula (possible ingredient for incense)
      • Ostrich eggshells
      • Cypriot pottery
      • Cypriot oil lamps
      • Bronze and copper vessels (four faience drinking cups shaped as rams’ heads and one shaped as a woman’s head)
      • Two duck-shaped ivory cosmetics boxes
      • Ivory cosmetics or unguent spoon
      • Trumpet
      • More than two dozen sea-shell rings
      • Beads of amber (Baltic origin)
      • Agate
      • Carnelian
      • Quartz
      • Gold
      • Faience
      • Glass

    • Jewelry, gold, and silver
      • Collection of usable and scrap gold and silver Canaanite jewelry
      • Among the 37 gold pieces are: pectorals, medallions, pendants, beads, a small ring ingot, and an assortment of fragments
      • Biconical chalice (largest gold object from wreck)
      • Egyptian objects of gold, electrum, silver, and steatite (soap stone)
      • Gold scarab inscribed with the name of Nefertiti
      • Bronze female figurine (head, neck, hands, and feet covered in sheet gold)

    • Weapons and tools
      • Arrowheads
      • Spearheads
      • Maces
      • Daggers
      • Lugged shaft-hole axe
      • A single armor scale of Near Eastern type
      • Four swords (Canaanite, Mycenaean, and Italian(?) types)
      • Large number of tools: sickles, awls, drill bits, a saw, a pair of tongs, chisels, axes, a ploughshare, whetstones, and adzes

    • Pan-balance weights
      • 19 zoomorphic weights (Uluburun weight assemblage is one of the largest and most complete groups of contemporaneous Late Bronze Age weights)
      • 120 geometric-shaped weights

    • Edibles
      • Almonds
      • Pine nuts
      • Figs
      • Olives
      • Grapes
      • Safflower
      • Black cumin
      • Sumac
      • Coriander
      • Whole pomegranates
      • A few grains of charred wheat and barley

  3. #3
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    Default Re: Ancient Mediterranean Work Boats

    Thank You Ersine and Lupussonic both! I'll be watching this thread with considerable interest as my good lady is working on a research paper on the Spice Route and early trade between the Far East and Europe. Not a truly academic affair, just casual research to share with interested friends, but when it comes to information, the more the merrier!

  4. #4
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    Default Re: Ancient Mediterranean Work Boats

    I look forward to anything you can bring to light about this tradition Ersin, which is so different from what we usually hear about. Thanks for letting us know about these two ships.
    Alex

    "“He was unfamiliar with the sea and did not like it much: it was a place that made you cold and wet and sick” " Nevil Shute, Trustee From the Toolroom

  5. #5
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    Default Re: Ancient Mediterranean Work Boats

    That was a rich cargo... someone took a big hit.

  6. #6
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    Default Re: Ancient Mediterranean Work Boats

    This is very intrsting subject. These work boats are specially produced. They can be calasified as long keel double ender boats but bottom part is wide . Ports are more different than todays one because thay need beach to cary them to dah ground. Saling period is May to October and in winter time they keep the boats in shore. This is the reason that , bottom parts of these work boats are wide . Also this is important to increase cargo capacitiy. Terracotta amphoras were used to carry wine, olive oil , etc. Besides the amphoras they used big terracotta cubes as todays container. These terracotta material used as ballast of the boat.

    They have square sails , but I beliave they know how to go winward direction. Experimental sailing voyage with Kyrina, proof that these boats can close untill 60 degree to the wind. I found a investigation about Wiking boats and these boats can sail winward direction untill 60 degree . At that time all ancient boats had similar rigs.

    Kovending.jpgStagvending.jpg


    BUt I think ancient skippers did not like to sal winwad due to their heavy and fragile cargo. Due to that the ports location selected to the sailing capabilities of the boats.

    Minos civilisation before the Greeks in Crete. They based theis civilisaton to the sea and they controlled all trade seaways in Middle Medditeranian. Besides the ports, they constructed small logistic port called as " Minoa "

    I try to learn what was the seaways of theat boat and try to find where were the Minoas. This is my sailing plan for this summer. and I based Knidos ancient port and city and try to sail the possible Minoa points in Aegean sea.

  7. #7
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    Default Re: Ancient Mediterranean Work Boats

    You may want to keep an eye on the finds at Fournoi - 58 shipwrecks, from ancient to near-modern.

    In an unprecedented discovery, archaeologists in Greece have uncovered what could be the largest concentration of shipwrecks ever found in the Aegean Sea and possibly, even the entire Mediterranean region. As part of the mission, the team recently came across at least 58 shipwrecks, along with a treasure trove of artifacts dating from ancient Greece all the way to the 20th century.

    Found in the waters near Fournoi, an archipelago of small Greek islands lying between Ikaria, Samos and Patmos in the North Aegean region, most of the artifacts belong to the Greek, Roman and Byzantine eras, researchers stated. Although this isn’t the first time that archaeologists have stumbled upon an ancient shipwreck in the Aegean, it could, quite possibly, be the largest.

    The finds, as per the team, tell the story of how multiple ancient vessels, laden with cargo and passing through the Aegean Sea, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, went down as a result of sudden storms. Speaking about the discovery, Dr. Peter Campbell, an underwater archaeologist at the RPM Nautical Foundation and the co-director of the Fournoi project, said –

    "The excitement is difficult to describe, I mean, it was just incredible. We knew that we had stumbled upon something that was going to change the history books. I would call it, probably, one of the top archaeological discoveries of the century in that we now have a new story to tell of a navigational route that connected the ancient Mediterranean."


    MORE AT.....
    Archaeologists Find What Could Be The Largest Concentration Of Ancient Shipwrecks In The Aegean (LINK)


    #include [ std-disclaimer ]

    Hope the voyage is a long one.
    May there be many a summer morning when,
    with what pleasure, what joy,
    you come into harbors seen for the first time...

    Ithaka, by Cavafy
    (Keeley - Sherrard translation)

  8. #8
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    Default Re: Ancient Mediterranean Work Boats

    Could it be 'the Fournoi triangle' at work…………………..?

  9. #9
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    Default Re: Ancient Mediterranean Work Boats

    Quote Originally Posted by skuthorp View Post
    Could it be 'the Fournoi triangle' at work…………………..?
    More likely some combo of bad luck, bad timing, bad weather, and bad guys.....

    During antiquity and later on, it served as a stopover point for ships on the Aegean. However, given that the region frequently experiences powerful squalls and is surrounded by rocky cliffs, bad weather was probably what caused the ships to sink. Koutsouflakis added –

    "Because there are narrow passages between the islands, a lot of gulfs, and descending winds from the mountains, sudden windstorms are created. It is not a coincidence that a large number of the wrecks have been found in those passages…if there is a sudden change in the wind’s direction, and if the captain was from another area and was not familiar with the peculiarities of the local climate, he could easily end up losing control of the ship and falling upon the rocks."

    Later on, Fournoi was also frequented by pirates looking to loot vessels laden with valuable cargo. Although most of the wrecks were the result of unexpected storms, some may have been caused by pirate attacks, the researchers claimed.

    Hope the voyage is a long one.
    May there be many a summer morning when,
    with what pleasure, what joy,
    you come into harbors seen for the first time...

    Ithaka, by Cavafy
    (Keeley - Sherrard translation)

  10. #10
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    Default Re: Ancient Mediterranean Work Boats

    The Hellenic Traders series of books, by historian Harry Turtledove (writing as H.N. Turtletaub), contains quite a bit of information about the types of ships, their cargos, trading routes, navigation, and seamanship and ship-handling in post-Alexander 4th-century-BC Mediterranean lands.

    The akatos Aphrodite is a 20-metre trading galley home-ported in Rhodes.

    The Aphrodite had twenty oars on either side, giving her almost as many rowers as a pentekonter, but she was beamier than the fifty-oared galleys so beloved by pirates: unlike them, she had to carry cargo.
    But she's no where near as beamy as the bulk-carrier round ships, with their single massive sail and minimal crew, at the mercy of the wind, or lack of it.

    As he passed the southern tip of Khios, he swung the Aphrodite west for the passage across the Aegean. The akatos sailed well enough with the wind on the quarter; at his orders, the sailors swung the yard to take best advantage of it, and also brailed up some of the canvas on the leeward side. “A little more,” he called, and they hauled again on the lines that raised the fabric section by section. He waved to show he was satisfied.
    Also making for the outlet was a big, beamy round ship, deeply laden with wheat or wine or some other bulk commodity. Like any round ship, this one was made to travel by sail. Her handful of crewmen strained at the sweeps, but the fat ship only waddled along. Expecting her to move aside for the Aphrodite would have been absurd. Menedemos pulled in on one steering-oar tiller and pushed the other one away from him. Graceful as a dancer, the merchant galley swung to port. As she passed the round ship, Menedemos called out to the other captain: “What’s the name of your wallowing scow, the Sea Snail?”
    “I’d sooner be aboard her than Poseidon’s Centipede there,” the other fellow retorted. They traded friendly insults till the Aphrodite’s greater speed took her out of hailing range.
    Pirate ships and war galleys get some attention too.....over the course of the series, Aphrodite and her crew flee from and fight pirates, and even take on a Roman war galley.

    Menedemos wanted a pair of good eyes looking out for pirates. The mountainous seaside district of Lykia lay just east of Kaunos, and, as far as he or any other Rhodian could tell, piracy was the Lykians' chief national industry. Any headland might shelter a long, lean, fifty-oared pentekonter or a hemiolia—shorter than a pentekonter because its oars were on two banks rather than one but even swifter, the pirate ship par excellence—lying in wait to rush out and capture a prize. Spotting a raider in good time might make the difference between staying free and going up on the auction block, naked and manacled, in some second-rate slave market.

    Hope the voyage is a long one.
    May there be many a summer morning when,
    with what pleasure, what joy,
    you come into harbors seen for the first time...

    Ithaka, by Cavafy
    (Keeley - Sherrard translation)

  11. #11
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    Default Re: Ancient Mediterranean Work Boats

    What a great discovery ! More than 50 wreck. This region is one of the dangereous part of Aegean. Always windy and huge seas like ocean. Because of sea depth at north of the Fournoi. The south part is not so deep and the currents from the north flows like hell.. But this is the shortest way to go Greece from Turkey Kuşadası. 100 nautic miles away there is Ephesos which was an important ancient state-city and important ancient port.

    I desire to learn how they determine the number of wreck?

  12. #12
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    Default Re: Ancient Mediterranean Work Boats

    Quote Originally Posted by ersin boke View Post

    {SNIP}

    I desire to learn how they determine the number of wreck?
    Underwater surveys by the archaeologists...
    Launched in 2015 by the foundation, in collaboration with Greece’s Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities, the survey mission originally uncovered 22 shipwrecks in the region. Less than three years later, the number has risen to 58. So far, the team of archaeologists has retrieved over 300 antiquities – mainly amphorae – from the site of the wrecks.

    Hope the voyage is a long one.
    May there be many a summer morning when,
    with what pleasure, what joy,
    you come into harbors seen for the first time...

    Ithaka, by Cavafy
    (Keeley - Sherrard translation)

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