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Thread: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

  1. #1
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    Default "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    Seems that the word "faering" is used for clinker built Norwegian row/sail boats that have two oar stations. They tend to be 15-19 feet long and can hold from 2 to about 4 or 5 people.

    From my study of boat lines the following principles form my concept of "faering shape". I did not include the Gokstad faering because some of its proportions are different, it being a much older design.

    1. V-bottom
    2. Mostly 3 or 4 strakes
    3. Average height of the ends is 1/2 the beam
    4. Length/width ratio between 3.2 and 3.5
    5. Midship depth is 2/3 or slightly less of the average end height.
    6. The strakes are subequal in width
    7. The angles the strakes are set at relative to each other amidships are also subequal, making for a slack bilge
    8. The sheer strake tapers strongly towards the ends, while the middle strake(s) is expanded toward the ends.
    9. Lots of flare all around the boat
    10. The flat (to slightly hogged) portion on the bottom of the boat is mostly between 50% and 60% of the boat length
    11. Bow slightly higher than stern, and perhaps with a slightly steeper rake, but very similar in profile
    12. Stem and stern profiles are essentially the arcs of a circle (the ends of Shetland yoles are highly raked too but the profile is different)
    13. boat slightly wider in the front half than rear half (above the waterline, mainly due to the wider middle strakes and similar flare)


    Did I forget anything important or get anything wrong?

    Does the boat below capture the "essence of faeringness"? It is based on a detailed study of the lines of 5 different boats, and isn't exactly any one of them.

    Would it, at just over 13' long, be a reasonably seaworthy boat for a single rower? Or would it be too tippy? Have too much windage? The waterline is placed at about 90 kg (~200 lbs) displacement, which would be the weight of the boat and me and a bit of ballast/cargo.



    In the modern faering derivatives for plywood, like the Joel White Shearwater and the Clint Chase Drake, the garboard is noticeably the widest, taking up ~50% of the total combined strake width, and the sheer strake is the narrowest. This makes for a firmer bilge and more initial stability but needs a wider garboard that has more twist near the ends. Plywood will do all that. These modern row-adapted boats also have a less deep keel and a lower profile relative to boat length. Modern sail-adapted boats sometimes have a deeper keel and perhaps a slightly straightened out rudder attachment area.

    Only once have I come across a word for a similar boat with a single rowing station, which was called an "aering" in a thread about the build of a Strandebarmer faering. Googling "aering" brings up a picture of this one boat, but otherwise mostly pictures of jewelry and horses. No boat line drawings. There is the "Arby boat" found in a grave that has a plank keel and a single rowing station.

    Do these boats for a single rower go under another name that I haven't discovered yet, or is it just a type of boat that's rare because it is too small to be useful for fishing? I've seen lines for a similar Swedish boat for duck hunting, the Jaktkanot, which is 13' long and 4' wide. It has two rowing stations but looks a bit cramped with two people. It seems to have the same general proportions as a faering, just in a smaller package and with a few more strakes and a slightly more complex hull form.

    Does anyone have lines drawing for a single rower "faering?" I'm wondering how any of the shape factors above would differ.

  2. #2
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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    First off, that three strake boat is in the Oselver style. Boats from other areas were built with four or more strakes, and were still faerings, sixareens, ottrings and so on. The standard texts do not describe anything smaller than fourern, which can be managed by one man or two as needed.
    You do need more water line beam and less rise to the garboard. Stability scales as the cube of length, so simply creating a smaller copy will not work.
    It really is quite difficult to build an ugly wooden boat.

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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions


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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    That boat looks wrong to me. I cannot read a line drawing properly but there is something completely wrong in the angles of all the three strakes. Altering the flare angles would also alter the run if the seams. It is all wrong. That boat would be terribly tender and not bear much of a load.

    Both in Sweden and in Finland there were lots of small double ended boats for rowing but there is no partiocalar name that is used all over. Every region or parish or sometimes village had their own names for those small boats and they have never had te same kind of revival in modern times as in Norway.
    We would say knärr in this parish. Further north they would say lillbåt and further south they would say knop. The people of Holmön opposite us on the Swedish coast would say enabåt.
    On Gotland they had a particularly seaworthy small boat called enmänning. On Åland they had a type called roddsump. Some of the Swedes on the islands of Estonia built some very seaworthy small boats as well but very few boats survived the Soviet occupation.

    In the Faroe islands in the Atlantic they had a type of small doubleender called tribekkur.

    Boats with three strakes per side aren't unheard of in the Baltic. I have seen one surviving boat and the remnants of another and Iknow where a third boat is and have heard rumours of a probale fourth boats. Though most had from 4 up to 7 strakes per side.

    I think you should look for an old boat with a shape you like and copy it. A compromize boat will have lots of shortcomings.
    Amateur living on the western coast of Finland

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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    Going back to post #3 ( I was in a hurry to get to work), you can see that the Oselvar and Gokstads had less deadrise, they were wider at the waterline.





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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    From that same thread I expanded the frames and the backbone to 30", which with 1.5" = 1 foot would produce a 20" LOA to the inside of the planking. Then, using that scale I measured the beam at the sheer at the midsection and got 49". That looks like a good rowing hul for one or two rowers to me. I'm not too sophisticated, just seat of the pants, so perhaps some will say that I'm mistaken.

    Here it is, from flo-mo's post # 32 (Thanks Flo-mo!).


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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    After a bunch of googling to try and find the boat types mentioned by Heimlaga, I found a few (mainly the roddsump). I've also found faering cross sections that resemble the one I drew above more than the Oselvar, but were meant for a larger boat.

    I've long admired the Gokstad faering, and had seen the thread about it, but not recently. I've googled it and found more replicas of it than mentioned in that thread, some staying quite true to its design and others changing it somewhat. It is a bit extreme to me, a very long boat for the amount of capacity, I don't think it would scale down well for a single rower, its beam would shrink to nothing. It is essentially all ends. That's why I've been drawn more towards the Oselvar/Hardanger type, that is also beautiful and looks like you could miniaturize it a bit better.

    I did a redesign of the above, where I left the above-water profile essentially alone, but widened the garboards and reduced the deadrise, resulting in more initial stability. To stay within the two sheet concept I had to reduce the whole boat by 3%. It is still more stable, but has slightly less waterline length making it slower at higher effort.


    I envision at least 3 protype builds out of cheap plywood to just test the relative merits of the boats, then I'll save the marine plywood for the one I like best, and at the same time I have some demo boats (which I'll need to build a new shed for....). They will all get around 8-9" of freeboard.

    1. A "long and skinny wherry" (15.5' length, 3' beam) for calm water (already half done)
    2. A "short and stumpy" boat as close to an Oselvar type faering as I can get while still being a useful boat (13' length, 4' beam)
    3. A rowing optimized faering style boat similar to the one in my "most seaworthy shape amidships" thread, but already further developed and asymmetrical (~15.5' length, ~4' beam).


    In the end I will know whether the extra 1.5' length in the "rowing optimized boat" is worth the extra weight and wetted area, and in which sea conditions which type of boat will be superior to the others.

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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    How do you plan to do the framing?

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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    Also, have you watched this 4 season TV series. We're watching it now on Graboid. Lots of Viking boat shots, excellent scenery, good and historically fairly accurate story.

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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    I misspelled the word tríbekkur so I don't think you could find anything.
    The type was discussed before on this forum:
    http://forum.woodenboat.com/showthre...9-Faroese-boat
    The first picture on this page is a tríbekkur:
    http://www.hvannrok.fo/2013/11/07/ba...m-ahuga-i-sms/


    Enmänning from Fårö off nothern Gotland. Built in 1925.
    https://www.facebook.com/Ostergarnsbatar/photos/a.944420328975405.1073741831.101532509930862/944420368975401/?type=3&theater
    https://www.facebook.com/Ostergarnsb...type=3&theater
    Amateur living on the western coast of Finland

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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    A knärr from Österbotten in Finland which was for sale locally not long ago:
    http://www.findit.fi/sve/search/862678.htm
    The straight outwards leaning sternpost has been chopped off at some point and replaced with a transom.
    Amateur living on the western coast of Finland

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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    You may already know this small faering by Iain Ougthred:



    Should you be interested in taking a closer look at the Elf and the Elfyn I recommend the digital version of Boat Design Quarterly Vol #40 which provides lines plans in excellent quality and a lot more information about these two Ougthred plywood faerings.
    Last edited by flo-mo; 03-16-2016 at 09:52 AM.

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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    Quote Originally Posted by Gib Etheridge View Post
    How do you plan to do the framing?
    The planking will be "butterfly concept" with all the strakes joined at the bow (same as the Sweet Dream canoe or Flywood and also detailed in my other thread http://forum.woodenboat.com/showthre...ape-on-rowboat). There will be one frame in the middle where the bow and stern halves join, and this will be the butt block at the same time. The midship seam will also be fiberglass reinforced on the outside.

    Below is an example from the narrow boat I'm building now. The butt block part is made from 1x3, and the vertical reinforcement that sets the angles is also out of 1x3. The pieces will joined with epoxy and screws. The screw heads will be sunken below the surface and the top filled with epoxy. Perhaps a wider boat with 4' beam will need a 1x4 vertically. The forward part of the seat will rest on this frame, the backside of the seat will rest on small blocks on the planking and a riser down to the keel.




    I tried out a number of different framing styles in my signboard prototype:



    I don't have a thickness planer, so I cannot do laminated frames. I don't have a bandsaw or even a good sabresaw that actually cuts straight, so I cannot easily do plywood frames with concave cuts. I only have a handheld circular saw and a big tilting mitre saw that can cut compound mitre/bevels.

    I am planning to deck the ends for about 2.5-4', so there will be plywood bulkheads, with some 1X1 to screw into where the bulkheads join the planking. Judging from my signboard prototype, that might be all the framing I will need. I might go for the 4 chambers, in which case there will be two bulkheads in each end.

    The faering type boats have lots of curvature that will be reinforced by the epoxy fillets in the taped seams, so I expect the hull to mostly hold the shape by itself, similar to a lapstrake hull. The framing is mainly necessary to stiffen it a bit and spread the gunwales to the correct beam. Of my paper models the curvy faering type boats hold their shape really well even with relatively thin cardboard. The more elongated types with straighter lines need thicker cardboard or more framing or thwarts to assume the correct shape unless they have harder chines.

    This boat isn't intended for sailing, so I don't think I need the extra stability in the enmanning and tribekkur, although they are beautiful boats in their own right and not often discussed on this forurm. Makes me itch for a boat viewing vacation, touring boat museums and boat builders in northern Europe to see these boats in person and maybe row some of them.

    I know I cannot beat the "real deal" in looks or function, but because I'm basically trying to develop the "instant, car-toppable little faering" I try to stick to 3 strakes and thin plywood. I always keep in mind the picture of the lady rowing the 12' Vermont packboat in conditions I'll likely face https://www.pinterest.com/pin/531987774709386268/, so I think the boats I'm building are not just toys.

    Once I test paddled different kayaks, and thought I'd like the more substantial 16'+ boats that track straighter, but in the end I preferred a slim little 14.5' kayak that took no effort at all to move and just a little lean and quick correcting stroke brought it back on course when the bow got blown off a bit.

  14. #14
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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    I am using these two photos to call attention to this thread (http://forum.woodenboat.com/showthre...00#post4834000) which is only remotely related but may be interesting for all who love traditional Nordic boats.




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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    Quote Originally Posted by flo-mo View Post
    I am using these two photos to call attention to this thread (http://forum.woodenboat.com/showthre...00#post4834000) which is only remotely related but may be interesting for all who love traditional Nordic boats.
    Wow, sometimes I think I'm on the wrong continent! I hadn't seen this thread before, so many lovely boats in there. I also ordered the Whenever I see those femborings on big water it strikes me that they don't seem to have a lot of freeboard.

    How much freeboard is desirable in a rowboat? The designs above would have 8-9", but it would be easy enough to go up or down an inch or so. Seems like the Oselvar has about 12" with one person but it would be less with the 2 or 3 people that normally sail in them.

    Not quite the Lofoten but this is 20 min down the road from where I live, just outside of the Bay of Islands. The boats in that thread wouldn't look out of place there. In the prevailing stiff westerlies this coast is a wicked lee shore, the map calls it Wild Cove, so not where I would normally row. However, this cove might be accessible by small rowboat on a calm day. There is a protected fishing boat harbor only a couple of miles away.


    The Boat Design Quarterly has been downloaded, I'll mock up the Oughtred boats in Freeship to see how much they differ, at first glance they appear to be intermediate in underwater profile between the two I drew, but with a wider sheer strake.

  16. #16
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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    To me that frame design of yours looks like you will have a lot of weight in the wrong place and little strenght. Not what you want in a light and strong boat.

    If you don't have the tools needed for laminating the frames could'n you just uproot a couple of spruce tree stumps and make the frames from that? Chainsaw and axe and a scrub and a jack plane are all tools you need to produce perfectly good curved framing stock.
    Fitting the frames is done using a sharp axe and a spokeshave and a chisel or two and a fine toothed saw. I have done that with good result and I am a carpenter not a boatbuilder.
    Amateur living on the western coast of Finland

  17. #17
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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    Shetland boats were framed out by scarfing top timbers to floors all sawn from driftwood, like this.

    The fastiband beam was nailed in, rather than forming beam and top timber from grown crooks.

    The Shetland islanders call their small craft ella or whilly boats, is there not a similar generic name in Norse?
    It really is quite difficult to build an ugly wooden boat.

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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    Bump!
    Quote Originally Posted by BOI View Post
    While my mini-faering is sleeping half done in the shed, I decided to start another build in my basement over the winter. My oldest nephew had just turned 3 and I felt he might like a Viking ship of his own, to be set up in the living room for play while he is little, then taking it to the cottage when he can swim completely on his own.
    Did I miss a thread in which you described the design you settled on?

    Quote Originally Posted by BOI View Post
    Only once have I come across a word for a similar boat with a single rowing station, which was called an "aering" in a thread about the build of a Strandebarmer faering. Googling "aering" brings up a picture of this one boat, but otherwise mostly pictures of jewelry and horses. No boat line drawings. There is the "Arby boat" found in a grave that has a plank keel and a single rowing station.
    Gerrie Warner still sells plans for the Årby Gård Viking canoe. The website with contact information is http://goto.glocalnet.net/startsida/...oats/canoe.htm

    Since it has not been updated in 8 years, I emailed him last nght to confirm that the plans are still available. He said yes. He has at least two versions, one original and one simplified for easier construction. IIRC, from 30 years ago on rec.boats.building, the plank keel is the simplified version for less experienced builders.

    This is a drawing of the Arby boat:

    http://www.sjolander.com/viking/museum/Arbyboat.gif
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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    Please be aware that Gerrie Warner is a fraud. This man is a fraud. For the $ 25 you get a few (bad) copies from this book: The Arby boat (Monographs / The Museum of National Antiquities / Stockholm)
    by Holger Arbman (https://www.librarything.com/work/5781934). This violates the copyright of the author.
    Ruud

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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    Excuse me if I have this wrong but I understand that the names faerings, sixareens and ottrings are from Shetland and refer to the numbers of oars, namely four, six and eight meaning two, three or four rowers (or rowing positions). So the discussion about the names of the local types would likely be qualified by saying it is a sixareen XXXXX where XXXXX is the name of the type.

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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    Quote Originally Posted by Phil_B View Post
    Excuse me if I have this wrong but I understand that the names faerings, sixareens and ottrings are from Shetland and refer to the numbers of oars, namely four, six and eight meaning two, three or four rowers (or rowing positions). So the discussion about the names of the local types would likely be qualified by saying it is a sixareen XXXXX where XXXXX is the name of the type.
    These terms are Norse in origin, and the Norse exported these craft as kits to the Shetlands originally. You do indeed need to add the region to the type. A Hardanger faering is different from a Nordlands boat. Both double ended four oared boats, built the same way but shaped differently.
    Ben Fuller
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    Default Re: "Faering" for singe rower: hull proportions

    There is a nice 13ft rowing boat called a smålandseka, 5 planks a side.

    https://batritningar.se/en/smalandseka/81-smalandseka


    Usually built entirely of oak, so not a lightweight.

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