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Thread: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

  1. #1
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    Default Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    I have decided to "go public" with my restoration efforts of my 1935 Richardson Cruisabout 32' for several reasons, not the least of which is to hold myself accountable for making progress. I find that as a student of cruiser restoration, and not an advanced student at that, I often need the input of those that have been down this road.
    I have found myself deeply inspired by watching the restoration of Tom Freeman's "Peaceful" progress. Equal inspiration has been found in wacthing the rebuild of Cogeniac's "Makoto". While my Cruisabout is in the early stages of her renovation, I hope to follow closely in the footsteps of these folks, as their efforts have seemed on target in both planning and execution. Fortunate vessels owned by good men.

    Our Richardson was last known as Monarch. She was used lovingly on Saginaw Bay in Michigan. Her owners, until a little more than a year ago, were good people that treated her like family. They selected me to care for her after interviewing many. Despite the fact that I was not in nearly as strong a financial position as some others to take responsibility for her, the PO's seemed to have confidence that I would be her best steward. They generously sold her to me for far less than they were asking, nearly insisting that I take her.

    I traveled from my home in NH several times to see her. I was pleased that they wanted her to be with me, but I wanted to make sure I was what was best for her. So often men with that romatic shimmer in their eye take "possesion" of such a vessel without knowing what they are in for. Often the boats pay a price when these men realize that they are in over their heads. I didn't want this old gal to be such a vessel.

    Long story short, I was deep in love after the first visit. I sepnt considerable time determining what she needed and what I was capable of, knowing already that I would remedy my shortcomings so we might be together. We are.

    I have spent months developing a plan for her renovation. It goes something like this;

    Rebuild her as if she were being built. Foundation first, then move upward. The details include replacing and sistering ribs, replacing all through hulls, a few new planks, mechanical repairs, and a possible reframing of the salon sole. Basically everything from the sheerline down before she makes a splash. Lots of progress has already been made. I will post pics soon.

    To date we have steamed in 28 new ribs, along with all of the work it takes to get to them and replace them. We are thrilled with the progress and the result, but have developed many questions along the way. While there is much history yet to tell, I will let that unfold over time. I would like to start by inviting input from those that have gone before on the following topics;

    1. My Cruisabout has a single bilge stringer. It travels from the transom to the bulkhead at the front of the forward cabin, approximately six feet short of the stem. Is this an original configuration?

    2. The shelf construction, beneath the covering boards along the cabin sides, includes no gussets to the ribs or topsides. There are planks, the shelf, and the cabinsides, apparently through bolted. Were there some form of gussets originally to support the shelf?

    3. How would the hull interior have been finished originally? I have read a great deal about using red lead primer between all of the frming components and the planking. It does not appear that the original bits of my hull were treated with such. I am also curious about the best system of primers and paints to coat the bilge and interior of the topsides, vs. no paint system at all. Are there advantages of each?

    http://s1211.photobucket.com/albums/cc428/stangusso/


    Perhaps this is a big first bite. Any guidance would be appreciated. And please, keep up the inspirational work.
    Last edited by Tangusso; 01-26-2013 at 09:17 AM. Reason: added picture link

  2. #2
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Well, let me be the first to welcome you to the forum as an active participant!

    Your boat is beautiful!

    The photo of her on the trailer brought back memories of when I shipped MAKOTO down form Seattle. I drove past the trailer on the freeway on the way to the airport. That was weird...

    What is your restoration setup? Is she out of the water now? Are you doing the work yourself, or do you have some professional help?

    We used Red Lead (see Geo. Kirby in New Bedford Mass) on everything inside from the garboards down (shaft log, horn timber, frame heels and garboards. After that we poured pitch to level the bilges, and then use Interlux Bilgekote everywhere inside the hull. We used grey below the waterline and white above. It really crisps up the boat. You can pull a sole panel and actually see what's there instead of a dark wet void...

    We started sort of upside down. I did a fair bit of interior restoration before we hauled her and did all the keel work. Had I to do over I would use your bottom up approach..

    Not sure about your stringer question. Maybe Tom will know.

    I noticed that your engine picture has the same messy array of wiring and such as MAKOTO did when I first got her. I'll take some finished systems photos and post them so you can see the general approach I used. Basically, no wire is unsupported for more than about 10-12 inches. Everything is bundled and zip tied, and clean. This is much easier to do once the hull is all clean and painted inside You may want to make some diagrams or do some labeling and pull out all the wiring and replace it with new. I basically replaced all of the "systems", and I am very happy with it. The boat looks completely original until you pull the sole panels and see that all the wiring, steering, etc is new. I probably used about $1K worth of cushion clamps, Ancor terminals and wire, plus the new AC, Battery and breaker panels.

    PM me so we can share email addresses and phone numbers. I'll be happy to provide any advice I can.

    Be sure to post a good record. I feel that my thread seems to have missed a lot since I was so focused on doing the work that I forgot to document some of it.

    Once again, welcome to the madness!

    Cheers,
    S
    Now is a good time!


    Steward of MAKOTO [WB Magazine #232], and Honored Member of the LPBC

  3. #3
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    I'm very happy to see you here. Peaceful is a 1939 boat, so I'm not sure how consistent the designs are, but I'm happy to share what I have. I also have some drawings of early 30's Cruisabouts that may be helpful. Scott, I embarrassed myself last weekend at the Classic Yacht Association Change of Watch meeting when I enthusiastically introduced myself to a woman that I mistakenly thought was your wife saying that I couldn't wait to meet you. She brought me to see her husband, and oops, it was not the right guy.
    She requires of her owner a custodial obligation and responsibility that has absolutely nothing to do with financial return on investment or annual cost of maintaining and operating her.

  4. #4
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Welcome! Lovely boat. I'm looking forward to following your progress.
    Chuck Thompson

  5. #5
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Thank you Cogneiac. She is quite beautiful...although less so now than in the pictures. She is on the hard in a hoop house style structure that we built for her. Even on the days I don't get to work on her I can at least say good morning as I walk by on my way to work.

    I am doing the work with the assistance of my wonderful partner Christine. Despite the fact that she has no previous woodworking experience, she has proven very capable with power tools and very eager to learn. A true pleasure to wade through this project with. We are fortunate in that, some 20 or so years ago, someone replaced the majority of the keel, and ran sisters from the new keel along side the original ribs. Not the way I would have made the repairs, but I imagine they were trying to avoid scarfing or entirely replacing the originals. The bottom planking was replaced with mahogany at that time. Unfortunately that's where the good news stops. Rather than re caulk the bottom with cotton, they opted to pump the seams full of 5200 or some such nasty stuff. The combination of this, along with the sister joints being below the turn of the bilge, caused many of the original ribs to break. I suspect movement between the planks and hard spots from the sisters? Don't know for sure. I do know the ribs need(ed) replacing.

    We purchased a green white oak log from a local mill, had it sawn into slabs with the grain in the correct orientation (lots of waste), and took them home. We cut the ribs from the slabs and built ourselves a 10' long steamer and went to town. We replaced every other rib in sections. First port then starboard, working our way aft from the forward cabin. In the process we naturally removed the interior, including galley and head, and pulled the fuel tanks and other bits from beneath the salon. I recorded as much detail as possible with my camera, and have been keeping a hand written account of the process that I intend to leave with the boat when I'm gone from her.

    We have been pleased with how sound she is in general. There are certainly many areas that require attention, but she clearly has a great deal many good days ahead.

    Thank you Tom. I would love to see the material you have for the Cruisabouts. As I mentioned, my boat has a single bilge stringer. If more should be installed now would be the time...


  6. #6
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Great pictures! I am so looking forward to seeing this restoration. We get to enjoy all the fun without doing all the work!!

    Good on you to do this all yourself!

    Cheers.
    S
    Now is a good time!


    Steward of MAKOTO [WB Magazine #232], and Honored Member of the LPBC

  7. #7
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    I am in the process of researching paint systems for the bilge of my Richardson. I have had folks suggest not painting it all, to allow the wood to breathe. Some have suggested using Thompsons water seal or something similar. Others have suggested tar pitch.

    I am leaning toward a more traditional paint system. I would like to know what others have used for layers or primer and paint, over bare wood, to ultimately end up with a painted bilge and top sides on the interior. Any thoughts on why you selected your system would be appreciated.

  8. #8
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Gotta love cruisers of the 30's. I agree with your POA. Congrats!!

  9. #9
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Thank you Sirens.

    I am looking for some input on a couple of things;

    1. I would like to know what others have used for layers or primer and paint, over bare wood, to ultimately end up with a painted bilge and top sides on the interior. Any thoughts on why you selected your system would be appreciated.

    2. My Cruisabout has a single bilge stringer. It travels from the transom to the bulkhead at the front of the forward cabin, approximately six feet short of the stem. Is this an original configuration?

    3. The shelf construction, beneath the covering boards along the cabin sides, includes no gussets to the ribs or topsides. There are planks, the shelf, and the cabinsides, apparently through bolted. Were there some form of gussets originally to support the shelf?

    Anyone else with a Cruisabout that could comment? Thanks.

  10. #10
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    We used red lead on the mating faces of all new keel parts, and red lead from the keel up to the garboards. We had chipped out all the old pitch between the floor timbers, so we re-poured pitch in all the "bays" except where we planned to put bilge pumps. Then we painted everything up to the waterline with Interlux grey Bilgekote, and white Bilgekote above the waterline. In the cabin area we used Interlux Brightsides on all of the exposed white areas. I used their "flattening agent" at about 1:2 (1 part flattening agent to 2 parts paint) for the overhead.

    I have found that the grey Bilgekote has flaked away in a few places where the bilges were really soaked with diesel oil. This area was primarily in the aft area of the cabin where there had been a diesel stove that apparently leaked. It also doesn't stick too well to the pitch.

    Hope this helps

    S
    Now is a good time!


    Steward of MAKOTO [WB Magazine #232], and Honored Member of the LPBC

  11. #11
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Thanks for the reply. Does the Bilgekote product require any primers or specific preparation for the wood surfaces? Do you think it is a concern to paint the interior surface of the planking and ribs without having the mating surfaces between the two painted or treated? Maybe I am over thinking this, but I can envision water seeping between the ribs and planking and not being able to escape due to encapsulation of the ribs and planking with paint.

  12. #12
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Ideally you will want to paint parts with red lead before they go in. or before other parts are attached to them (probably for the reason you state). My bilges are always wet anyway, so it doesn't seem like a big deal if there is trapped water. The frame heels are mostly underwater all the time.
    Now is a good time!


    Steward of MAKOTO [WB Magazine #232], and Honored Member of the LPBC

  13. #13
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Shoveling 18 inches of snow dreaming of cruising in the warm sun. I hope she's dreaming the same dream...

  14. #14
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Looks like maybe you need some ends on that bow shed... (easy for me to say here in (sorta) balmy clear CA.. Stay safe!
    Now is a good time!


    Steward of MAKOTO [WB Magazine #232], and Honored Member of the LPBC

  15. #15
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Blizzard Nemo has me feeling rebellious. I decided not to let a few inches (18) of snow ruin my boating daydreams. Christine and I spent a few hours and finally removed the Salon Sole. We had struggled with replacing several ribs through the covering boards. This involved me squeezing my larger than I believed butt into the smaller than it looked bilge area. It proved to be less than fun, and was the a deciding factor in the timing of rebuilding the sole. She was carpeted by the previous owner. We had removed the carpet some months ago to facilitate other work. The sole was layered with 3/8" ply over the original (I believe) cedar T & G planking. Under the planking was 3/4" fiber board which was intact but somewhat deteriorated. Rigid foam insulation was below the fiber board between the framing members. As you can see in the pictures we also removed the storage cabinets that were at floor level in the salon. I think this link will bring you to a complete set of pics http://s1211.beta.photobucket.com/us...so/story/10871

    [IMG][/IMG]

    [[IMG][/IMG


    [IMG][/IMG]

    The heavy lifting is done. Now we can get in there and start the cleanup process. Just need to remove the starboard fuel tank. This should make the process of replacing the remaining ribs much easier.

  16. #16
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    That looks familiar!

    Are you keeping the sole frame?

    When you go to put back the sole I suggest you "panelize" it. We made a new frame, but this would probably work on the frame youahve. We put down 3/4 inch DF strips right down the center of each frame. These then formed the dividers between 3/4 DF ply sole panels. The result is that nearly all of the sole can be pulled up and you can basically get at anything.

    Here's a quick pic. I'll post some others on the MAKOTO thread.



    These ply panels will be covered with 3/8 T&G teak in the next 2 months or so (the wood is on my front porch waiting for me to finish the wheelhouse overhead....).

    Good to see some progress! Stay Warm!

    S
    Now is a good time!


    Steward of MAKOTO [WB Magazine #232], and Honored Member of the LPBC

  17. #17
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    I bet this brings back memories for you. I dare say my assistant is prettier than yours, but other than that the scene is quite similar. I intend to reframe the sole. The current timbers are attached to the sides of the ribs with screws and nails. I will likely use fir to reframe with a proper stringer and some fancy joinery to attach the joists. For now I will leave the old framing in place until most of the ribs are replaced. My thinking is that it will help support and maintain the shape of the hull as the ribs go in. I am in the process of buying another white oak log from a local sawyer and hope to be milling another batch of ribs soon.

    If you get a chance Cogeniac, I would love to have some pics of your framing, as well as your fuel tank install.

    Try to stay out of the hot sun!

  18. #18
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    My Name is Scott...

    My other half definitely has a better looking backside than Jodi!!

    Glad to help. I'l post pics in the next few days.
    Now is a good time!


    Steward of MAKOTO [WB Magazine #232], and Honored Member of the LPBC

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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Eventually, you will want to have all those wires and hoses clamped every 12 inches or so.. Make for a much neater setup...

    We boxed the engine and added sound proofing to the inside of the box. That way the engine is not exposed directly to the rest of the bilges. This also helps focus your ventilation.

    S
    Now is a good time!


    Steward of MAKOTO [WB Magazine #232], and Honored Member of the LPBC

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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Thanks Scott. I had the same discussion with Christine yesterday after looking at your pics. It makes more sense to enclose the engine and soundproof only that box as opposed to doing the entire sole underside. What did you choose for an insulating material? What research did you do on clearances and materials?

  21. #21
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    If you decide to paint the bilge, a decent quality latex paint is all that is required, and I could make the argument that such a product is also about as good as you can do. There is no need or benefit in buying specialized bilge paint, though of course it won't hurt.

    Personally, I like painted bilges. I'd paint in light colors (white/off-white. light gray) to maximize light reflection. A painted bilge will reveal seepage and weeping a bit easier as a rule. No paint you might reasonably use will stop the wood from "breathing". No worry there. Paint does tend to tidy up the look. In your case, as the engine is not in a "room" and you must work on it from above, the light reflective quality of a light colored painted bilge won't come into play. Mostly it is about how you would like it to look.
    One of the most enduring qualities of an old wooden boat is the smell it imparts to your clothing.

  22. #22
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Thank you for the input Lew. I appreciate it. I will certainly paint the bilges for many of the reasons you stated.

    Here is a pic of the new ribs we steamed into the head. You can also see remnants of Blizzard Nemo strewn about. I hate having snow on board...

    [IMG][/IMG]

  23. #23
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Are there any others here that own a Richardson Cruiser of this era? I have some questions regarding construction details that I could use some assistance with.

  24. #24
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Tom Freeman who has post 3 in your thread has one.
    Chuck Thompson

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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Thank you Chuck. I am certain Tom will chime in as time permits. Do you know of any others?

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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    I do not but check out the Richardson Association webpage: http://www.richardsonboats.com/memberboats.html
    Chuck Thompson

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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Thank you Chuck. We think alike as I just became a member a couple of weeks ago. They seem like a great group of people with lots of passion for Richardsons. I requested some info from them after you brought them to mind...
    Last edited by Tangusso; 02-13-2013 at 10:59 PM.

  28. #28
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    You were asking me (in a PM) about tank mounting. Over on the 1935 Monk thread I posted this pic, and then realized that this shows the tank mounts too. The runner sitting on top of the floor timbers to the left of the keel in the lower half of the pic is the mount for the tank. There is a matchign runner under the ply board on the right. The tank has stainless runners that sit on these oak runners. These are screwed to the floor timbers at each station, and then the tank is through bolted at the ends of the stainless runners.

    The longitudinal sole frame piece in the middle pulls out, and the tank fits under it.

    Now is a good time!


    Steward of MAKOTO [WB Magazine #232], and Honored Member of the LPBC

  29. #29
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Thank you Scott. Good information.

    What is the grade and dimensions of the fir you selected for the sole framing? Do you have some detailed pics of the joinery you used at the stringers, as well as at the intersections of the individual framing members? I am in the process of calculating the height of the sole framing and the resulting height of the finished sole surface. I am contending with the clearance requirements for the top of the motor, as well as the bottom of the existing helm station, companionway threshold, and rear salon entry threshold. They do not all seem to be getting along currently. In fact, the old engine cover was 3/4" ply. It had a hole cut in it as a relief for the top of the heat exchanger tank. The hole was skinned with sheet metal and carpeted over...lol not ideal. I want to maintain the level of the sole so there is no raised portion above the engine room that would interfere with the conpanionway door or cause a trip hazard.

    How do you intend to attach your finished flooring to your sole panels? will you put a border piece of flooring around each panel or just run the flooring lengthwise and let the raised deviders serve as the border?
    Last edited by Tangusso; 02-18-2013 at 02:22 PM.

  30. #30
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Thank you Scott. Good information.

    What is the grade and dimensions of the fir you selected for the sole framing? Do you have some detailed pics of the joinery you used at the stringers, as well as at the intersections of the individual framing members? I am in the process of calculating the height of the sole framing and the resulting height of the finished sole surface. I am contending with the clearance requirements for the top of the motor, as well as the bottom of the existing helm station, companionway threshold, and rear salon entry threshold. They do not all seem to be getting along currently. In fact, the old engine cover was 3/4" ply. It had a hole cut in it as a relief for the top of the heat exchanger tank. The hole was skinned with sheet metal and carpeted over...lol not ideal. I want to maintain the level of the sole so there is no raised portion above the engine room that would interfere with the conpanionway door or cause a trip hazard.

    How do you intend to attach your finished flooring to your sole panels? will you put a border piece of flooring around each panel or just run the flooring lengthwise and let the raised deviders serve as the border?
    Last edited by Tangusso; 02-18-2013 at 02:22 PM.

  31. #31
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    The framing is 2 inch square vertical grain DF (with the grain set vertically for best bending strength). I'll post some pics of the jopinery. Basically the long pieces have a 1/2 inch deep open mortise where the cross pieces connect, and the cross pieces have a half tenon that fits into the mortise. It is surprisingly strong and very simple. Getting the height right is a pain in the butt. My engine has a relatively high exhaust riser, and the height of the engine itself was such that we were destined to have an engine box. I think Richardson's have a little more freeboard, so maybe you can get the engine below the sole without making the wheelhouse too cramped. I am 6'2" so headroom is important. THe wheelhouse is JUST high enough at the current sole height. Once you fin that height, then you can attach a frame edge to the forward bulkhead and build from there. I am not sure how the shop got it level and flat. If I had done it, I would have probably used a laser level inside the boat. The frame is cleated to the hull at the edges. There are six plywood "knees" or semi bulkheads that support the outer edges of the frame you see above. Two on each side of the rear of the large opening, and then two half way forward for that same large opening, and two halfway back where the tank is. There is one vertical support (you can see it right at the end of the shaft log). This photo is not really complete. There are two more long frames that parallel the engine beds, and two cross frames. I think you can dope these out from the pic below, but I'll go over to the boat and pull the sole panels and take some better pics.



    Here is a pic looking aft with the tank mockup in place

    Now is a good time!


    Steward of MAKOTO [WB Magazine #232], and Honored Member of the LPBC

  32. #32
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    For the sole panels, I will cut down the ply panels by 1/4" all around and then epoxy a teak frame surround in the same way I did the interior sole panels (see posts 365-367 of the Makoto thread). These edges will be slightly different since the salon sole has those 3/4" square DF separators. The idea is that the teak edge will fill the 1/4 gap I'll remove, but cover the edge of the ply panel, and then come halfway over the top of the square DF separator. So the panels will sit flush to each other viewed from the top, but they are held in place on the sole frame, and apart from each other below the planking by the DF separators.

    Here is a diagram.
    Now is a good time!


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  33. #33
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Masterful design. Mind if I borrow it?

  34. #34
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    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Not at all! Have at it.

    This time I am going to construct the edging as opposed to milling it. When I milled the "L" edges for the cabin sole it worked well, but there were a lot of left over sticks of expensive wood. With the 3/8 covering, I figure I can put a 1/8 groove in the under side, and let in a 7/8 x 1/4 teak edge strip. Probably be a bit of a gluing mess, but once it is clamped it should be OK.

    I think I'll paint the bottoms of the sole panels first, then cut off the edges and put the teak borders on. That way I won't be risking getting white paint on the new teak.

    I got 3/8 x 3" T&G teak strips milled from EastTeak in WA. It is not vertical grain, but they did a nice job of selecting it, and the selected wood ended up half the price of VG teak. Still expensive though. VG DF on edge might look nice. I have a friend with a Chris Craft who did that. It is beautiful. Ipe is hard and rot resistant, but heavy... Lots of choices!
    Last edited by Cogeniac; 02-19-2013 at 11:09 AM.
    Now is a good time!


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  35. #35
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    543

    Default Re: Restoration of a 1935 Richardson Cruisabout

    Just ordered some vertical grain Doug Fir for my new cabin sole frame, some mahogany planking for new top strakes both starboard and port, new mahogany for rub rails, and another batch of silicon bronze screws (ouch). Hoping to finish steaming in the next batch of ribs before the sole framing arrives. In the meantime I am wrestling with removing the 5200 that was slathered between the planks on the entire bottom of the boat. This is not a new issue for me, just one I have managed to ignore up to this point. I have had no success removing the material chemically (as expected), and limited success removing it mechanically with a thin blade. The only method I have discovered that seems to work is using a very small high speed tool in my mini router that looks like this:

    http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=...lectedIndex=89

    I fabricated it from 1/16" drill rod. I ground it to a sharp point so the distance from the tip to the full diameter of the rod was 7/8" (same as my planking thickness). By grinding the flat beyond the centerline of the rod diameter it creates a scooping and cutting effect that removes about 60 - 70% of the cured 5200. I can then scrape and pick a bit more out so the remaining material is fairly well adhered. The bit seems to avoid digging deeply into the wood as a typical router bit might, but rather is guided by the plank edges fairly well.

    I have a few concerns:

    First, How critical is it that all the bits of 5200 are removed?

    Second, is it a problem if the edges of the planks get roughed up a bit, and no longer have a smooth milled edge?

    Finally, should all seams of carvel planks have a taper between them (wider space on the outside than toward the inside of the hull), or are they often parrallel?

    Other approaches gladly considered....

    [IMG][/IMG]
    Last edited by Tangusso; 02-26-2013 at 12:51 PM. Reason: added photo

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